The multiplication of bacteria in water occurs mainly in water pipes. Here they find ideal conditions for multiplication. The causes for the occurrence of coliform bacteria can be divided into three areas:
- 1. Raw water extraction and waterworks
- 2. Distribution network
- 3. Drinking water installations in buildings
The reasons for the occurrence of coliform bacteria can be:
- Inadequate water disinfection or lack of water hygiene.
- Inadequate water treatment at the waterworks
- Broken pipes or leaks
- Bacteria that adhere to sediment can bypass water disinfection
- Heavily polluted water, for example, by algae (resistance of bacteria increases)
- Reversal of flow direction and sudden increase in flow velocity
- Poorly maintained pipe networks
- Disturbances in the technological flow
Coliform bacteria are considered hygiene indicators and their detection are one of the common hygienic test methods for determining water quality. With ever-improving microbiological detection methods, these bacteria can be detected in the water.
Bacteria multiply easily, especially in long pipes and at warm temperatures. Coliform bacteria are considered pathogenic, and potentially disease-causing.
The situation becomes critical whenever microbiological contamination in the form of pathogenic bacteria enters drinking water or occurs in large numbers in raw water, the preliminary stage of drinking water.
Coliform bacteria occur, for example, in drinking water, in the drinking water distribution system, in tap water, bathing water, in well water and wastewater, on foodstuffs, in contaminated elevated tanks, in groundwater and spring water, in drinking water, in swimming and bathing pool water and sewage treatment plants.
For the water supply of private households, public institutions, the industry as well as agriculture, fluctuations in the quality of raw water represent one of the main problems. Therefore, comprehensive water hygiene is important to prevent waterborne diseases.